1. Tan J, Wang T, Chen Y, Bai G, editors. Safety evacuation measures in urban subway fire. 2009 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Computing Technology and Automation; 2009.
2. Abu‑Zaid SA. Analyzing a transit subway station during fire emergency using computational fluid dynamics. Transp Res Rec 1996;1521:159‑64.
3. Tajedi NA, Sukur SA, Ismail SM, Isa HM. Analysing the simulation model of risk perception based of the pedestrian behaviour at underground station in Malaysia: A framework paper. ARPN J Eng Appl Sci 2016;11:5409‑12.
4. Jiang CS, Deng YF, Hu C, Ding H, Chow WK. Crowding in platform staircases of a subway station in China during rush hours. Safety Sci 2009;47:931‑8.
5. Landow HT, editor. Safe egress from deep stations. 47th Annual Transportation Research Forum; 2006.
6. Li YF, Chen JM, Ji J, Zhang Y, Sun JH, editors. Analysis of Crowded Degree of Emergency Evacuation at “bottleneck” Position in Subway Station based on Stairway Level of Service. Procedia Eng 2011 ;11:242- 51.
7. Yang XX, Dong HR, Yao XM, Sun XB. Pedestrian evacuation at the subway station under fire. Chinese Physics B. 2016;25:048902.
8. Li D, Han B. Behavioral effect on pedestrian evacuation simulation using cellular automata. Saf Sci 2015;80:41‑55.
9. Wu Y, Xu J, Jia L, Qin Y. Estimation of emergency evacuation capacity for subway stations. J Transp Saf Secur 2018;10:586-601.
10. Galea ER, Wang Z, Jia F, Lawrence PJ, Ewer J. Fire safety assessment of Open Wide Gangway underground trains in tunnels using coupled fire and evacuation simulation. Fire Mater 2017;41:716‑37.
11. Nie HJ. Study on Safety Egress in Subway Fire. Ann Arbor: Northeastern University (People’s Republic of China); 2008.
12. Yang KH, Lee SK. Smoke management and egress design analysis of an underground railway station. J Appl Fire Sci 1999;9:153‑71.
13. Shokouhi M, Nasiriani K, Cheraghi Z, Ardalan A, Khankeh H, Fallahzadeh H, et al. Preventive measures for fire‑related injuries and their risk factors in residential buildings: A systematic review. J Inj Violence Res 2019;11:1‑14.
14. Sacfung A, Sookhanaphibarn K, Choensawat W. Serious Game for Fire Safety Evacuation Plan. Pedagogy. 2014;87:12.50.
15. Jeon G, Hong W. Characteristic features of the behavior and perception of evacuees from the Daegu subway fire and safety measures in an underground fire. J Asian Archit Building Eng 2009;8:415‑22.
16. Li F, Chen S, Wang X, Feng F. Pedestrian evacuation modeling and simulation on metro platforms considering panic impacts. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2014;138:314‑22.
17. Zhang G, Huang D, Zhu G, Yuan G. Probabilistic model for safe evacuation under the effect of uncertain factors in fire. Saf Sci 2017;93:222‑9.
18. Yuan Z, Jia H, Liao M, Zhang L, Feng Y, Tian G. Simulation model of self‑organizing pedestrian movement considering following behavior. Front Information Technol Electron Eng 2017;18:1142‑50.
19. Fang Z, Li Q, Li Q, Han LD, Wang D. A proposed pedestrian waiting‑time model for improving space–time use efficiency in stadium evacuation scenarios. Buil Environ 2011;46:1774‑84.
20. Wang P, Luh PB, Chang S‑C, Marsh KL, editors. Efficient optimization of building emergency evacuation considering social bond of evacuees. CASE; 2009.
21. Ma JC, Li J, Zhou XY. Reliability analysis of evacuees’ evacuation safety in fire based on the computer simulation method. J Disaster Prev Mitig Eng 2009;29:376‑81.
22. Maguire M, Delahunt B. Doing a thematic analysis: A practical, step‑by‑step guide for learning and teaching scholars. All Irel J Teach Learn Higher Educ 2017;9: 3351-9.
23. Ma L, Chen B, Qiu S, Li Z, Qiu X. Agent-based modeling of emergency evacuation in a railway station square under sarin terrorist attack. International Journal of Modeling, Simulation, and Scientific Computing. 2017;8(02):1750022.
24. Tsukahara M, Koshiba Y, Ohtani H. Effectiveness of downward evacuation in a large‑scale subway fire using Fire dynamics simulator. Tunnelling Underground Space Technol 2011;26:573‑81.
25. Jevtic RB. Security in metro‑an example for simulation of evacuation from subway. Facta Universitatis, Series: Working and Living Environmental Protection; 2017.p. 197‑208.
26. Hu QM, Fang WN, Li GY, Ding L. Influence of exit layout of a metro station on pedestrian evacuation. J China Railway Soc 2009;31:111‑5.
27. Qu Y, Dan Y. Modeling the evacuation behavior considering the effect of dangerous source. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2014;138:800‑10.
28. Jiang CS, Ling Y, Hu C, Yang Z, Ding H, Chow WK. Numerical simulation of emergency evacuation of a subway station: A case study in Beijing. Archit Sci Rev 2009;52:183‑93.
29. Ma J, Wang R, Qiu Q. Passenger assignment model for emergency evacuation in metro rail tunnels. J China Railway Soc 2016;38:8‑14.
30. Zheng Y, Jia B, Li XG, Jiang R. Evacuation dynamics considering pedestrians’ movement behavior change with fire and smoke spreading. Saf Sci 2017;92:180‑9.
31. Lei W, Li A, Gao R, Hao X, Deng B. Simulation of pedestrian crowds’ evacuation in a huge transit terminal subway station. Physica A 2012;391:5355‑65.
32. Yue H, Wang S, Zhang L, Shao C. Setting method of emergency exits in pedestrian walking facilities. J Beijing Jiaotong Unive 2014;38:1‑6.
33. Zhang LM, Liu MJ, Wu XG, Abou Rizk SM. Simulation‑based route planning for pedestrian evacuation in metro stations: A case study. Autom Constr 2016;71:430‑42.
34. Yao H, Zhao Z, Li Y, Liang D. Matching design of bottlenecks in the evacuation of metro station. J Residuals Sci Technol 2016;13:551-5.
35. Wang H, Wang ZY, Hu YX, Liu LK. Simulation research based on evacuation ability estimation method. Proceedings of the 2016 12thWorld Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation (Wcica)., IEEE; 2016.p. 645‑9.
36. Fridolf K, Nilsson D, Frantzich H. The flow rate of people during train evacuation in rail tunnels: Effects of different train exit configurations. Saf Sci 2014;62:515‑29.
37. Chen YZ, Cai SJ, Deng YF. Simulation Study on Main Affect Factors to the Evacuation Corridor. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2012;170:3533-8.2. 38. Shi C, Zhong M, Liu Z, editors. Reliability analysis on occupant evacuation of elevated metro station in fires. 9th International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management 2008; 2008.
39. Zhang X, Xu J, Guo JY, Wang Y, editors. Study on evacuation facilities bottleneck in xizhimen station with simulation. Advanced Materials Research. Switzerland: Trans Tech Publ; 2013; 706-708: 2044-7.
40. Erkan İ, Hastemoglu H. Building evacuate module for urban underground passages: Subway station in Turkey. J Transp Technol 2015;5:1.
41. Wang QQ, Du YY, Zhang XY. Application of ant colony algorithm in subway station emergency evacuation. Fire Sci Technol 2015;1:22.
42. Yiheng W. Virtual assessment model on emergency evacuation capacity of Beijing subway based on BP neural network algorithm. J Saf Sci Technol 2012;1:5‑10.
43. Xiaojun Z, Xueying Y. Study on safety evacuation time for passengers in subway station and its application. Advanced Materials Research. ???: Switzerland; 2013. p. 2965‑9.
44. Li ZJ. Evacuation time of the facilities in rail transit study and simulation. Applied Mechanics and Materials.Switzerland 2013. p. 1137‑40.
45. Xu, Yan Ying Duan, Wan Wan Li, Lu Chao. “Safety Evacuation at Metro Transit Station in Shenyang under Fire”, Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 864-867, pp. 849-852, 2014.
46. Li C, Li J. Simulation and Analysis of the Crowd Evacuation in Subway Station. ICTE; 2015. p. 2394‑400.
47. Dezhi Z. Safety evacuation design for the entrances and exits of deep stations on chongqing metro. Urban Rapid Rail Transit 2009;2:24.
48. Okada N, Hasemi Y, Moriyama S. Feasibility of upward evacuation by escalator – An experimental study. Fire Mater 2012;36:429‑40.
49. Cheng H, Yang X. Emergency evacuation capacity of subway stations. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2012;43:339‑48.
50. Chen YY, Cai YW, Li PP, Zhang GH. Study on evacuation evaluation in subway fire based on pedestrian simulation technology. Math Probl Eng 2015; http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/357945:9.
51. Butler K, Kuligowski E, Furman S, Peacock R. Perspectives of occupants with mobility impairments on evacuation methods for use during fire emergencies. Fire Saf J 2017;91:955‑63.
52. Wu XC, Xie D, Li L. An analysis on the occupants evacuation time computation of the subway platform. J Shenyang Aerospace Unive 2012;5:18. 53. Wu J, Hu S, Feng J. Study on safe area in railway station under fire. J Tongji Unive (Natl Sci) 2010;3:15.
54. Xie H, Xu YY, Zhang X, Chen J. Study on Emergency Evacuation in the Subway Fire Accidents. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2014;580:1033.
55. Li ZY, Tang M, Liang D, Zhao Z. Numerical simulation of evacuation in a subway station. Procedia Eng 2016;135:616‑21.
56. Chen SK, Di Y, Liu S, Wang BS. Modelling and analysis on emergency evacuation from metro stations. Math Probl Eng 2017:11.
57. Hong L, Gao J, Zhu W. Simulating emergency evacuation at metro stations: An approach based on thorough psychological analysis. Transp Lett 2016;8:113‑20.
58. Liao YF, Ma XQ. Simulation of pedestrian dynamics under subway fire using extended cellular automaton. J Syst Simul 2008;20:24.
59. Qu L, Chow WK. Platform screen doors on emergency evacuation in underground railway stations. Tunnelling Underground Space Technol 2012;30:1‑9.
60. Wu B, Wu ZS, Wang Z, Ji J, editors. Guangzhou: South China Univ Technology Press; 2009. 1624-8 p.
61. Roh JS, Ryou HS, Park WH, Jang YJ. CFD simulation and assessment of life safety in a subway train fire. Tunnelling Underground Space Technol 2009;24:447‑53.
62. Zhou R, He J, Jiang J, Tang X. Smoke diffusion and control at different platform floor structure of subway station in fire. China Railway Sci 2008;29:126‑31.
63. Roh JS, Ryou HS, Yoon SW. The effect of PSD on life safety in subway station fire. J Mech Sci Technol 2010;24:937‑42.
64. Zhi‑Yong L. Performance‑based study on evacuation security of ultra‑long passageway in subway station department store. J Jiangxi Instit Educ 2011;3:20.
65. Yang JT, Yang Y, Wang HL, Shi L. Effect of the open ways of screen doors on fire smoke in a subway platform. Procedia Engineering. 2011;11:416-23. 66. Zhang P, Zhang S, Yu J. The impact of screen doors on smoke spread of tunnel fire in island subway platform. J Shenyang Jianzhu Unive (Natl Sci) 2007;23:794‑7.
67. Chang S, Wu YS, Huang CJ, Chang KY. Effect of varied fire compartment areas in mass rapid transit underground malls with FDS simulation. J Appl Fire Sci 2007;17:261‑78.
68. Moriyama S, Hasemi Y, Nam DG, Tanaka S, Okazawa N, Ding W. Smoke movement characteristics and fire safety in subway stations. Fire Saf Sci 2005 ;8:1461-72.
69. Zhou R, He JP, Jiang JC. Effects of the PED on smoke control of subway station fires. J China Railway Soc 2008;30:62‑7.
70. Wang W, He T, Huang W, Shen R, Wang Q. Optimization of switch modes of fully enclosed platform screen doors during emergency platform fires in underground metro station. Tunnelling Underground Space Technol 2018;81:277‑88.
71. YinK, editor. Fire evacuation simulation for the case of a non‑symmetrical metro station using Wireless Sensor Network. 2015 5th International Conference on Information Science and Technology; 2015.
72. Yin K, Jiang J, editors. Application of fire monitoring and personnel evacuation in subway station based on wireless sensor network. ICALIP 2014‑2014 International Conference on Audio, Language and Image Processing.; 2015.
73. Yang P, Li C, Chen D. Fire emergency evacuation simulation based on integrated fire‑evacuation model with discrete design method. Adv Eng Softw 2013;65:101‑11.
74. Sarunac R, Hamilton BA, editors. A Safe Train State of Mind. Proceedings of the ASME/IEEE/ASCE Joint Rail Conference, JRC; 2008.
75. Xin Han, Chong Yu Li, Bei Hua Cong. “CFD Analysis on Fire Feature of Subway Station with Different Location of Ticket Machine”, Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 424-425, pp. 1207-1210, 2012.
76. Liao W, Zheng X, Cheng L, Zhao Y, Cheng Y, Wang Y. Layout effects of multi‑exit ticket‑inspectors on pedestrian evacuation. Saf Sci 2014;70:1‑8.
77. He LG, Shi CL, Zhong MH, Xu X. Analysis and discussion on passenger evacuation by lateral emergency evacuation platform in metro tunnel. J Saf Sci Technol 2013;7:10.
78. Liu FL, Wang YX, Zhou WT. Research on simulation of evacuation in the deep buried station of urban rail transit. Applied Mechanics and Materials. Vol. 505. Switzerland 2014. p. 712.
79. Tachibana H. Public space acoustics for information and safety. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 2013;133(5):35-80.
80. Li ZH, Zhang X, editors. Simulation and analysis based on emergency evacuation success rate in elevated layer of Beijing South railway station. Applied Mechanics and Materials.Switzerlan: Trans Tech Publ; 2014.
81. Norén A, Winér J. Modelling Crowd Evacuation from Road and Train Tunnels‑Data and Design for Faster Evacuations. LUTVDG/ TVBB‑‑5127‑‑SE; 2003.
82. Zhang B, Xu ZS, Zhao QW, Liu YY. A study on theoretical calculation method of subway safety evacuation. Procedia Eng 2014;71:597‑604.
83. Liao M, Xie F, Liu J, Liu D, editors. The survey and study on pedestrian evacuation in beijing underpass of subway‑mall. Proceedings – 2013 4th International Conference on Digital Manufacturing and Automation. ICDMA; 2013.
84. Sun XB, Dong HR, Ning B, Gao TX, Kong QJ. ACP‑based emergency evacuation systemActa Automatica Sinica 2014;40:16‑23.
85. Xie J, He JP, Zhou R, Peng HP. Analysis of air curtain applied in subway station to prevent smoke. In: Li SC, Wang YJ, Huang P, editors. Analysis of air curtain applied in subway station to prevent smoke. Beijing: Science Press Beijing; 2005. p. 1143‑6.
86. Luo H, Peng X, Zhong B, editors. Application of ontology in emergency plan management of metro operation. Procedia Eng 2016; 164:158-65.
87. Zhou Y, Zhou L, Yue Y. Research on Subway Station Emergency Evacuation Network Conformation and Application Based on Blocking Flow Theory. XJTU Academic Hub. 2005;22:1-12.
88. Lin‑Na C. Research on subway station fire emergency evacuation simulation based on multi‑stress. J Wuyi Unive (Natl Sci Ed) 2016;1: 7.
89. Zhong MH, Shi CL, Tu XW, Fu TR, He L. Study of the human evacuation simulation of metro fire safety analysis in China. J Loss Prev Process Ind 2008;21:287‑98.
90. Jiang LC, Chen JT. Research on safety evacuation of large‑scale railway passenger transport hub. Advanced Materials Research. Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland; 2014. p. 2095‑100.
91. Wu J, Feng J, Chen X. Comparative study of subway station evacuation design of PR China and USA. J Tongji Unive (Natl Sci) 2009;8: 8.
92. Papakonstantinou D, Benardos A, Kallianiotis A, Menegaki M. Analysis of the crowd evacuation modeling approaches for the case of urban underground spaces. Procedia Eng 2016; 165:602-9.
93. Madinaveitia J. Safety systems in underground tunnels of the Bilbao Metro. Tunnelling Underground Space Technol 2004;19:309.
94. Miclea PC, McKinney D, editors. Fire development, smoke control and evacuation options in case of a mid‑train tunnel fire. 12th International Symposium on Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels. 2006.
95. Choi J, Hur N, editors. A detailed CFD simulation on the effect of ventilation system operation on smoke control in the 2003 Daegu subway station fire. 15th International Symposium on Aerodynamics, Ventilation and Fire in Tunnels 2013. BHR Group; 2013.
96. Shoaei M, Maddahin R, Afshin H, Farhanie B, editors. Designing fire scenarios for subway stations and tunnels based on regional approach. Advanced Materials Research. Switzerland: Trans Tech Publ; 2012.; 433-44: 983-91
97. Gao R, LiAG, Lei WJ, Zhao YJ, Zhang Y, Deng BS. Study of a proposed tunnel evacuation passageway formed by opposite‑double air curtain ventilation. Saf Sci 2012;50:1549‑57.
98. Zhang Z, Qin Y, Cheng X, Zhu L, Kou L, Li J, et al., editors. Metro Station Safety Status Prediction Based on GA‑SVR. Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Electrical and Information Technologies for Rail Transportation; 2016: Springer.
99. Maslak V, Boytsov D, Danilov A, Levina E, Gendler S. Innovative engineering solutions for improving operational safety and efficiency of subways with two-way tunnels. Procedia Engineering. 2016;165:214- 23.
100.Tong R, Wang B, Li J, Tang S, Zhang B, Tan Z. A risk‑based approach for crowd evacuation performance evaluation under metro fire. Georisk 2015;9:75‑95.
101.Chen SK, Di Y, Shi RD, Li J, Wang B. Simulation and analysis on impacts and evacuation during the process of fire on metro platforms. J Transp Syst Eng Inf Technol 2017;17:241‑8.
102.Guo C, Wang M, Yu L. Control and behavior prediction of personnel evacuation in underground ventilation equipment room on fire. Applied Mechanics and Materials. Switzerland 2012. p. 2582‑6.
103.Vittori F, Rojas‑Solórzano L, Blanco AJ, Urbina R, editors. Numerical study of smoke propagation in a simulated fire in a wagon within a subway tunnel. 2008 Proceedings of the ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Conference, FEDSM 2008; 2009.
104.Zhao LJ. Numerical Simulation Study on Emergency Ventilation System in Subway Stations. Ann Arbor: Tianjin University (People’s Republic of China); 2008.
105.Rie DH, Yoon SW, Ko JW, Lee KO. Study on disaster prevention in case of fire at subway platform with platform screen door. Li SC, Wang YJ, Huang P, editors. Beijing: Science Press Beijing; 2005. 921-7 p.
106.Fridolf K, Nilsson D, Frantzich H. Evacuation of a metro train in an underground rail transportation system: Flow rate capacity of train exits, tunnel walking speeds and exit choice. Fire Technol 2016;52:1481‑518.
107.Chen T, Zhang SY, Zhao LZ, Xia JJ, Fu XC, Bao ZM, et al. Comparison of safety equipment between London underground and Beijing subway. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 2017.
108.Fridolf K, Ronchi E, Nilsson D, Frantzich H. Movement speed and exit choice in smoke‑filled rail tunnels. Fire Saf J 2013;59:8‑21.
109.Kenalty C, Gordon M. Subway Evacuation Mattress and Method of Manufacture. Google Patents; 2013.
110.Shiwakoti N, Tay R, Stasinopoulos P, Woolley PJ. Passengers’ awareness and perceptions of way finding tools in a train station. Saf Sci 2016;87:179‑85.
111.Motamedi A, Wang Z, Yabuki N, Fukuda T, Michikawa T. Signage visibility analysis and optimization system using BIM‑enabled virtual reality (VR) environments. Adv Eng Inf 2017;32:248‑62.
112.Hiroi U, Aoyama J. Study about the effect of the signposting for evacuation in the underground space. J Disaster Res 2016;11:315‑21.
113.Song B, Chen F, Su JY. Optimization for the subway emergency evacuation of the sign system. J Beijing Univ Technol 2008;34:504‑10.
114.Zhang Z, Jia LM, Qin Y. Optimization of signage system configuration on metro platform based on cooperative guidance. J Transp Syst Eng Inf Technol 2016;16:146‑52.
115.Yue H, Shao CF, Guan HZ, Cui D. Location method of emergency evacuation signs in large pedestrian facilities. J Beijing Univ Technol 2013;39:914‑9.
116.Zhang Z, Jia L, Qin Y. Optimal number and location planning of evacuation signage in public space. Saf Sci 2017;91:132‑47.
117.Chen YX. Agent‑based research on crowd interaction in emergency evacuation. Cluster Comput 2017:1‑14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/ s1058
118.Xu X, Song B, Li C, Hu X, editors. Study on the safety and disaster‑prevention signing system of the subway based on site investigation at home and abroad. Proceedings – International Conference on Management and Service Science. MASS; 2009.
119.Jia HF, Li YX, Yang LL, Zhou YN. Modeling the separating pedestrian flow in T‑shaped passage based on guide sign. Discrete Dyn Nat Soc 2016;2016: 1-7.
120.Cosma G, Ronchi E, Nilsson D. Way‑finding lighting systems for rail tunnel evacuation: A virtual reality experiment with Oculus Rift®. J Transp Saf Secu 2016;8:101‑17.
121.Chen YZ, Yang R, Liu Y, editors. Strategy study on mass evacuation with LBS information. International Conference on Web‑Age Information Management. China: Springer; 2014. p. 141-50.
122.Yang X, Dong H, Yao X, Sun X, Wang Q, Zhou M. Necessity of guides in pedestrian emergency evacuation. Physica A 2015;442:397‑408.
123.Liu JF, Yuan WF, editors. Modelling of crowd behaviour in emergency evacuation. Applied Mechanics and Materials. Switzerland: Trans Tech Publ; 2012; 166-169: 2581-90.
124.Zhang H, Li DY, Cui WX. Simulation Analysis of Passenger Emergency Evacuation under Fire in Metro Station. Occup Health Emerg Rescue 2010;4:13.
125.Dong H, Gao X, Gao T, Sun X, Wang Q, editors. Crowd Evacuation Optimization by Leader‑Follower Model. IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC‑PapersOnline); 2014.
126.Chow WK, Ng CM. Waiting time in emergency evacuation of crowded public transport terminals. Saf Sci 2008;46:844‑57.
127.Baysal Türkölmez G, Güneş M. Metro servis sistemlerinde acil tahliye modelleri: İzmir metro uygulaması. Pamukkale Univ J Eng Sci 2016;22: 324-38.
128.Li YZ, Gong X, Chen CK. Study on the performance‑based safe evacuation design in tunnel fires. J Disaster Prev Mitig Eng 2006;26:409‑13.
129.Ceng S. Studies on Intelligent Evacuation Modeland Simulation of Fire in Urban Underground Building. Ann Arbor: South China University of Technology (People’s Republic of China); 2009.
130.Li JF, Liu M, Sui XL, He WF. Simulation of available safe egress time in metro based on Monte Carlo method. In: Huang P, Wang Y, Li SC, Zheng C, Mao ZH, editors. Monmouth Junction: Science Press USA Inc.; 2006. p. 394‑8.
131.Zeng S, ZhaXX, ChenYY, JiangRJ. Safe evacuation from subway station under platform train fire. Applied Mechanics and Materials. Switzerland 2014. p. 2023‑6.
132.Wang WL, Jacqueline Lo TY. A simulation study on passenger escape in rail tunnels. Procedia Eng 2014; 71:552-7.
133.Ronchi E. Testing the predictive capabilities of evacuation models for tunnel fire safety analysis. Saf Sci 2013;59:141‑53.
134.Wang ZL, Hua M, Xu DY, Pan XH. Simulation research on human evacuation in subway with a single‑point fire scenario. In: Changgen F, Shengcai L, editors. 2014 International Symposium on Safety Science and Technology. Procedia Engineering. 84. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Bv; 2015. p. 595‑602.
135.Lo S, Wang W, Liu S, Ma J. Using agent‑based simulation model for studying fire escape process in metro stations. Procedia Comput Sci 2014;32:388‑96.
136.Pflitsch A, Bruene M, Killing‑Heinze M, Ringeis J, Agnew B, Steiling B. Natural ventilation as a factor controlling the dispersal of airborne toxins in subway systems in a disaster situation. J Transp Saf Secur 2013;5:78‑92.
137.Jiahui W, Jie S, editors. Emergency evacuation in subway station based on Combined Social Force Model. ICEIEC 2013 – Proceedings of 2013 IEEE 4th International Conference on Electronics Information and Emergency Communication; 2013.
138.Nguyen MH, Ho TV, Zucker JD. Integration of smoke effect and blind evacuation strategy (SEBES) within fire evacuation simulation. Simul Model Pract Theory 2013;36:44‑59.
139.Mao J, Lv H, Li SL, Li WJ. Smoke extraction function of mobile smoke ventilator in the fire scene of the subway station. J Beijing Jiaotong Univ 2007;31:128‑30.
140.Li YF, Zhu B, Sun X, Li JM, Du XL. Study of fire smoke diffusion in subway tunnel by large eddy simulation. J Beijing Univ Technol 2007;33:1060‑5.
141.Chen JH, Yang LB, Zhoua ZY, Zhang ZF. Anylogic‑based emergency evacuation of pedestrians in underground fire. In: VandeWalle B, Li X, Zhang S, editors. China. Harbin: Harbin Engineering University; 2007. p. 17‑23.
142.Haack A, Schreyer J, editors. Emergency scenarios for public commuter transportation tunnels. WIT Transactions on the Built Environment. 2005; 82:12.
143.Jeon GY, Kim JY, Hong WH, Augenbroe G. Evacuation performance of individuals in different visibility conditions. Buil Environ 2011;46:1094‑103.
144.Wang C. Study on the Fire Smoke Control and Evacuation in the Subway Transfer Station. Ann Arbor: Beijing University of Technology (People’s Republic of China); 2011.
145.Wang X, Chen S, Zhou Y, Peng H, Cui Y, editors. Simulation on passenger evacuation under fire emergency in Metro station. IEEE ICIRT 2013 – Proceedings: IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Rail Transportation; 2013.
146.Liang H, Xu W. Performance analysis on evacuation in subway fire. J Shenyang Jianzhu Univ (Natl Sci) 2012;28:702‑9.
147.Xie H, Xu YY, Zhang X, Chen J, editors. Study of life safety on the fire accidents in the subway station. Applied Mechanics and Materials. Switzerland: Trans Tech Publ; 2014; 580-583: 1029-32.
148.Wang Q, Wang W. Planning and countermeasures of emergency evacuation route in subway fire. J Saf Sci Technol 2017;13:1-14.
149.Chang HP, Ho SP, Chen CS, Shen TS. The evacuation safety analysis of fire scenarios in the entire acoustic barriers of elevated mass rapid transit system. Tunnelling Underground Space Technol 2016;56:65‑9.
150.Li YF, Lin XX, Feng X, Wang C, Li JM. Life safety evacuation for cross interchange subway station fire. In: Changgen F, Shengcai L, editors. 2012 International symposium on safety science and technology. Procedia Engineering. 45. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Bv; 2012. p. 741‑7.
151.Cai Y, Lin ZY, Mao J, Bai G, Hu JW. Study on law of personnel evacuation in deep buried metro station based on the characteristics of fire smoke spreading. Procedia Eng 2016;135:544‑50.
152.Ardalan A, Kandi Keleh M, Saberinia A, Khorasani‑Zavareh D, Khankeh H, Miadfar J, et al. 2015 estimation of hospitals safety from disasters in I.R.Iran: The results from the assessment of 421 hospitals. PLoS One 2016;11:e0161542.
153.Hong L, Xu RH, editors. Analysis on Game Behaviors of Passengers in Emergency Evacuation in Subway Station. Applied Mechanics and Materials. Switzerland:Trans Tech Publ; 2011; 97-98: 576-82.
154.Marsella S, Delprato U, Marzoli M, editors. Save Me Project: Improving safety of transportation using innovative technologies. Reliability, Risk and Safety: Back to the Future. Rome, Italy; 2010.
155.Xie J, He JP, Zhang Y. Fuzzy synthesis assessment analysis of safety evacuation in subway station fire. In: Huang P, Wang Y, Li SC, Zheng C, Mao ZH, editors. Fuzzy synthesis assessment analysis of safety evacuation in subway station fire. Monmouth Junction: Science Press USA Inc.; 2006. p. 338‑41.
156.Tian JR, Zhou XQ. Analysis on people evacuation in a subway fire. Fire Sci Technol 2011;30:1011‑4.
157.Qian Q, Lin P. Safety risk management of underground engineering in China: Progress, challenges and strategies. J Rock Mech Geotechn Eng 2016;8:423‑42.
158.Tokunaga T, Amano K, Oiwa D, Uchiyama S, Mizuno M, Ohmiya Y, et al. An experimental study on the smoke behavior and ensuring the safety of staircases in a station building during a fire – Air current control in an underground station by a passive safety system. Fire Sci Technol 2007;26:9‑42.
159.Shi WB. Study on Fire Risk Assessment and Human Evacuation of Subway Stations. Ann Arbor: Beijing University of Technology (People’s Republic of China); 2008.
160.Yaghoubi T, Ardalan A, Khorasani Zavareh D, Khankeh H, Nejati A, Ebadi A. Decision‑making on hospital emergency evacuation in disasters and emergencies: Findings from a systematic review. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2017;19:e14214.
161.Lu K, Han B. Congestion risk evaluation and precaution of passenger flow in metro stations. Open Civil Eng J 2016;10:93‑104.
162.Nguyen MH, Ho TV, Nguyen TN, Zucker JD, editors. Which Behavior is best in a Fire Evacuation: Simulation with the Metro supermarket of Hanoi. Computing and Communication Technologies, Research, Innovation, and Vision for the Future (RIVF). 2012 IEEE RIVF International Conference. IEEE; 2012.
163.Haack A, Schreyer J. Emergency scenarios for tunnels and underground stations in public transport. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2006;21(3-4):203-9.
164.Zhang P, Zhang Y, Zhan H, Liu J. The application of human evacuation prediction platform in deep‑buried subway station. J Shenyang Jianzhu Univ (Natl Sci) 2009;6:25.
165. Ishigaki T, Kawanaka R, Onishi Y, Shimada H, Toda K, Baba Y, editors. Assessment of safety on evacuating route during underground flooding. Advances in Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering – Proceedings of 16th IAHR‑APD Congress and 3rd Symposium of IAHR‑ISHS; 2009.
166.He JF, Liu X. A subway emergency evacuation routing optimization method based on congestion degree. China Saf Sci J 2013;23:166‑71.
167.Castle CJ, Longley PA. A GIS‑Based Spatial Decision Support System for Emergency Services: London’s King’s Cross St. Pancras Underground Station. Geo‑information for Disaster Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 2005. p. 867‑81.
168. Ye QW, Lv YB, editors. Study on emergency evacuation strategies for unexpected large passenger flow in urban rail transit station. Material Science and Engineering – Proceedings of the 3rd Annual International Conference on Material Science and Engineering, ICMSE 2015; 2016.
169.SuiJ, Long S. Research on simulation of emergency evacuation guidance under biochemical terror attacks. J Syst Simul 2017;29:767‑74, 83.
170.Li Q, Deng Y, Liu C, Zeng Q, Lu Y. Modeling and analysis of subway fire emergency response: An empirical study. Saf Sci 2016;84:171‑80.
171.Zhilei W, Min H, Dayong X, Xuhai P. Simulation research on human evacuation in subway with a single-point fire scenario. Procedia Engineering. 2014;84:595-602`.
172.Huan P. Establishing emergency preparedness system for subway operation sectors. Urban Rapid Rail Transit 2009;4:12.
173.Sharma S, Jerripothula S, Mackey S, Soumare O, editors. Immersive virtual reality environment of a subway evacuation on a cloud for disaster preparedness and response training. IEEE SSCI 2014 – 2014 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence – CIHLI 2014: 2014 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence for Human‑Like Intelligence, Proceedings; 2015.
174.Chien S, Chen W, Shen T, Cheng C, Yang Y, Chao Y. Safety evacuation in MRT underground station by using buildingEXODUS with example of Xindian station of TRTS. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 2004;23 Suppl 2:5025‑9.
175.Li H, Maohua Z, Congling S, Jiehong S, Haicheng C, Qiaoxiang X. Experimental research on investigation of metro passenger evacuation behaviors in case of emergency. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics: Springer; 2011. p. 173-84.
176.Ju Kim H, Young Jeong J, Wook Kim J, Kyung Oh J. A factor analysis of urban railway casualty accidents and establishment of preventive response systems. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2016;218:131‑40.
177.Liu QQ, Han X, Shang K, Wu GH. Comparative analysis of evacuation simulation for a subway station fire. In: Shen Z, Li J, Wu Z, Luo Q, editors. Comparative analysis of evacuation simulation for a subway station fire. Nanjing: Southeast University Press; 2008. p. 1166‑74.
178.Zhang SL, Liu ML, Sun EM, editors. Comprehensive assessment on emergency evacuation capability of the subway station based on fuzzy network analysis. Applied Mechanics and Materials. Trans Tech Publ; 2013.
179.Charlton J, Brune M. Towards a dynamic evacuation system: Developing methodologies to simulate the evacuation capabilities of subway stations in response to a terrorist attack with CBRNE weapons. Fusion: Data Integration at Its Best. Vol. 1. England, UK 2014. p. 109‑18.
180.Bao L, Bao J, editors. Human behavior process in train station fire emergency evacuation. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of Chinese Logistics and Transportation Professionals. Logistics: The Emerging Frontiers of Transportation and Development in China; 2008.
181.DingAW. Implementing real‑time grouping for fast egress in emergency. Saf Sci 2011;49:1404‑11.
182.Li Q, Qin Y, Wang ZY, Zhang LQ. Study of passengers’ route choice of urban rail transit network under the emergency. Applied Mechanics and Materials. Switzerland 2014. p. 1940‑3.
183.Kadokura H, Sekizawa A, Takahashi W. Study on availability and issues of evacuation using stopped escalators in a subway station. Fire Mater 2012;36:416‑28.
184.Cłapa I, Cisek M, Tofiło P, Dziubiński M. Firefighters ascending and evacuation speeds during counter flow on staircase. Saf Sci 2015;78:35‑40.
185.Zhi Z. Comparison study on the pattern of passenger emergency evacuation in subway tunnel. Technol Dev Enterp 2013;1:17.
186.Han X, Cong BH. Evacuation Strategy Analysis of Fires for a Metro Station. International Joint Conference on Applied Mathematics, Statistics and Public Administration (Amspa 2014); 2014. p. 840‑5.
187.Wang Y, Xu J, Jia L, Guo J, Kang Y, editors. Investigation on passenger guidance system for URT under emergency conditions. Proceedings – ICIDT 2012, 8th International Conference on Information Science and Digital Content Technology; 2012.
188.Brüne M, Charlton J, Pflitsch A, Agnew B. The influence of subway climatology on gas dispersion and the effectiveness of guided evacuations in a complex subway station. Meteorol Z 2016;25:489‑99.
189.Liu Y, Wang T, Wu Z, editors. Simulation of emergency evacuation in subway station. 2010 2nd International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Natural Computing. CINC; 2010.
190.Li YF, Lin XX, Li JM, Wang C, Bian J, Fan HM. Ventilation and smoke control for a multi‑source fire scenario in a cross‑type interchange subway station. J Beijing Univ Technol 2013;39:1815‑20.e26.
191.Liu S, Zhou X, Yan N, Wang H. Optimization of ventilation mode for subway platform fire based on CFD. J Liaoning Tech Univ (Natl Sci Ed) 2008;27:17‑20.
192.Shi CL, Zhong MH, He L, Fu TR, Tu XW. Train fire smoke control in deep buried Island Metro station. In: Li SC, Wang YJ, An Y, Sun XY, Li X, editors. China Occupational Safety and Health Association. Beijing: Science Press Beijing; 2008. p. 844‑50.
193.Yang H, Yuen RK, Zhang H. Numerical study of smoke control for underground platform in a high‑speed railway station. Applied Mechanics and Materials. Switzerland; 2013. p. 2803‑12.
194.Yi SL. Performance‑based fire smoke virtual reality simulation and analysis of exchanging subway station. J Syst Simul 2013;25:681‑6.
195.Yang Y, Dimarogonas DV, Hu X, editors. Optimal Leader‑Follower Control for Crowd Evacuation. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control; 2013.
196.Weiwei K, Dongdong L. Pedestrian safety evacuation under fire at fuxingmen subway station in Beijing. J Beijing Univ Civil Eng Archit 2009;4:6. 197.Haghani M, Sarvi M. Pedestrian crowd tactical‑level decision making during emergency evacuations. J Adv Transp 2016;50:1870‑95.
198.Wang Z, Yang H, Zhu Z, editors. Development of a Simulation Model for Pedestrian Evacuation under Fire Condition. Simulation Series; 2017.
199.Yaghoubi T, Ardalan A, Khorasani Zavareh D, Khankeh H, Nejati A, et al. Decision-making on Hospital Emergency Evacuation in Disasters and Emergencies: Findings From a Systematic Review, Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2017 ; 19(11):e14214. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.1421.
200.Karagiannidis L, Misichroni F, DamigosY, TsertouA, AmditisA, editors. A novel and interoperable communication gateway implementation for evacuation systems. 2016 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference, IWCMC; 2016.
201.Dai X, editor. Choice Behavior of Passengers in Metro Emergency Evacuation: Using Stated‑Preference Data in Shanghai, China. Transportation Research Board 94th Annual Meeting; 2015.
202.Song Y, Gong J, Li Y, Cui T, Fang L, Cao W. Crowd evacuation simulation for bioterrorism in micro‑spatial environments based on virtual geographic environments. Saf Sci 2013;53:105‑13.
203.Chen AY, Huang T. Toward BIM‑enabled decision making for in‑building response missions. IEEE Transact Intelligent Transport Syst 2015;16:2765‑73.
204.Yang J, Jin JG, Wu J, Jiang X. Optimizing passenger flow control and bus‑bridging service for commuting metro lines. Comput Aided Civil Infrastruct Eng 2017;32:458‑73.
205.Liu W, Teng J, Zhang S, Chen Y, editors. Organization of a the shuttle bus under the condition of operation interruption to urban rail transit. CICTP 2014: Safe, Smart, and Sustainable Multimodal Transportation Systems – Proceedings of the 14th COTA International Conference of Transportation Professionals; 2014.
206.He C, Teng J, editors. Traffic organization and simulation evaluation outside the urban rail transit station in emergent events. CICTP 2014: Safe, Smart, and Sustainable Multimodal Transportation Systems – Proceedings of the 14th COTA International Conference of Transportation Professionals; 2014.
207.Yang YD, Zhao H. Responsive Bus Bridging Service Planning Under Urban Rail Transit Line Emergency. 3rd International Conference on Vehicle, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. Destech Publications I; 2016. p. 116‑21.
208.Wang JH, Yan WY, Zhi YR, Jiang JC. Investigation of the panic psychology and behaviors of evacuation crowds in subway emergencies. Procedia Eng 2016;135:128‑37.
209.Wang CX, Suo X, Lyu SR, Yang K. Research on panic degree model of emergency evacuation from subway. Zhongguo Anquan Kexue Xuebao China Saf Sci J 2015;25:171‑6.
210.Han X, Ma JN, Cong BH. Simulation analysis on crowd evacuation of the subway train fire. In: Zhang H, Jin D, editors. Advanced research on engineering materials, energy, management and control. Advanced Materials Research. Parts 1, 2. Durnten‑Zurich: Trans Tech Publications Ltd.; 2012. p. 424‑5, 1215.
211.Lindell M, Perry R, Prater C. Organizing response to disasters with the incident command system/incident management system (ICS/IMS). Int Workshop Emerg Response Rescue 2005; 1-14.
212.Khorasani‑Zavareh D. System versus traditional approach in road traffic injury prevention: A call for action. J Inj Violence Res 2011;3:61.
213.Sciences ECoSBUoM. official letter. Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Tehran, Iran; 15 Septamber, 2017.