Patterns of Mandibular Fractures Related to Interaction with Horses

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, Medical School Hannover, Hannover, Germany



Background: The risks of facial injuries with horse‑related activities are much higher than in other sports. There are just a few studies about
horse‑related maxillofacial injuries, and there are even less data in particular about mandibular fractures. However, the aim of this study was
to determine the patterns for mandibular fractures caused by horse contact or horseback riding. Materials and Methods: Data from patient
records were collected over 15 years from January 2000 to March 2015. All patients who suffer a mandibular fracture caused by horse contact
or horseback riding were included in this study. The analysis contained demographical data, trauma mechanism, type of mandible fracture,
and type of protective clothing. Results: Overall, 23 patients within 37 fractures were included in the study. Of those, 87% were females and
13% males. More than the half (52.2%) were aged between 16 and 30 years. The most common trauma mechanism was a horse kick (78.3%).
The most common site of fractures was the parasymphysis (32.4%) and the condylar region (32.4%), followed by the angle (21.7%). In
addition, 52.2% of the patients had a single and 47.8% a combined fracture of the mandible. Nearly all patients (95.7%) underwent surgery.
Open reduction and internal fixation was the treatment of choice. Only 17.4% of the patients wore a helmet. Conclusion: Mandibular fractures
are not the leading trauma in horse relating accidents; however, they are often associated with functional loss. The most frequent cause is a
kick from the horse while unmounted. Hence, there is a need for protective equipment usage at all times around horses especially wearing a
helmet with a face guard.


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