Measurement of Disability and Its Predictors Among Trauma Patients: A Follow-up Study


1 Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran

2 School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran



Globally more than a billion people, 15% of the population, lives with disability and most of disabilities are caused by injuries.

The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of disability and its predictors at 1 and 3 months post-injury in Kashan City during 2014 - 2015.

Patients and Methods
In this longitudinal follow-up study, 400 injured patients 15 - 65 years referred to Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kashan and hospitalized more than 24 hours were assessed for disability status with the WHODAS II 12-item instrument at 1 and 3-months post-injury. Patients based on their disability scores were divided into 5 groups: none, mild, moderate, severe and very severe. Work status was assessed at the 3-month follow-up with one question “Are you back at work following your injury”. Also, demographic characteristics and information about injury were gathered by a checklist. Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis, Pearson correlation coefficient and logistic regression by SPSS software. The significance level was set at P < 0.05.

The mean disability scores at 1 and 3 months post-injury was 30.3 (9.2) and 18.8 (8.3), respectively and there was a statistical significant difference between disability status at 1 and 3 months after trauma (P < 0.0001). The rates of return to work in 262 employed patients at 1 and 3 months after injury were 29% and 55.4%, respectively. The disability score showed a statistically significant correlation with Injury Severity Score (ISS) (P < 0.0001), work return (P = 0.033), intensive care unit transfer (P < 0.0001), trauma type (P = 0.001) and age (P = 0.004). Also, age, ISS, duration of hospital stay and injury to extremities were predictors of disability.

More than half of the patients were disabled after 3 months of trauma. Elderly patients, patient with severe trauma, and long hospitalization and patients with extremity injuries were high risk for disability.