Risk assessment of reheating furnace by failure modes and effect analysis method in steel complexes

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Health, Safety and Environmental Management, Faculty of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

2 Research Center for Environmental Health Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

4 Department of Occupational Health and Safety Engineering, School of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran



Background and Objectives: Workers of the steel industry are exposed to many hazardous risks of nonfatal injuries and diseases considering the structure of their working environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the risks associated with the furnace in one of the north of Isfahan (Iran) Steel Complexes. 
Methods: The data were gathered through meeting sessions, observation, and documents surveys and were documented in failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) worksheets. In this way, the weight of each failure was considered of risk priority number. Data surveys were documented in FMEA worksheets. 
Results: The results showed that explosion hazards and gas leaks were among the most dangerous hazards with the highest number of risks, respectively. After identifying the control measures and applying them, the percentage of identified risks is 77% at the acceptable level, 22.2% at the acceptable level under the condition of control, and 0% at the unacceptable level. Hazards found in workplaces were greater in the steel industries and iron industries. 
Conclusions: It can be concluded that education and training regarding related risk factors, providing personal protective equipment, and development of programs that can ensure safety in industries may lessen and prevent hazards associated with working place.


Fahimeh Karamali [Pubmed] [Google Scholar]



Mehmanpazir F, Khalili-Damghani K, Hafezalkotob A. Modeling steel supply and demand functions using logarithmic multiple regression analysis (case study: Steel industry in Iran). Resour Policy 2019;63:101409.  Back to cited text no. 1
Association WS. Economic Impact of the Global Steel Industry. Available from: https://worldsteel.org. [Last accessed on 2023 Jan 10].  Back to cited text no. 2
Jozi SA, Majd NM. Health, safety, and environmental risk assessment of steel production complex in central Iran using TOPSIS. Environ Monit Assess 2014;186:6969-83.  Back to cited text no. 3
Awolusi I, Marks E. Near-miss reporting to enhance safety in the steel industry. Iron Steel Technol 2015;12:62-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
Poudel RC, Sakaguchi T, Shimizu Y. A selective approach on data based quality prediction for quenched and tempered steel reinforcement bars. J Chem Eng Japan 2013;46:294-301.  Back to cited text no. 5
Ghosh A, Chatterjee A. Iron Making and Steelmaking: Theory and Practice. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 6
Anderson S, Crozier J, Gilmour L, Grandison A, McKeown C, Stibbs A, et al. Collins Concise Dictionary & Thesaurus. New York: HarperCollins; 2006.  Back to cited text no. 7
International Labour Office. Programme ILOSA. Code of Practice on Safety and Health in the Iron and Steel Industry: Meeting of Experts to Develop a Revised Code of Practice on Safety and Health in the Iron and Steel Industry, Geneva: International Labour Office; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 8
Song Y, Chen Z, Zhang S, Wang J, Li C, Li X, et al. Comprehensive evaluation system of occupational hazard prevention and control in iron and steel enterprises based on a modified delphi technique. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17:667.  Back to cited text no. 9
Association TWS. Availabale from: https://www.worldsteel.org/en/dam/jcr:73e020c1-bac8-4fb7-a6a8-65809cd26662/Safety%2520and%2520Health%25202020.pdf. [Last accessed on 2023 Feb 07].  Back to cited text no. 10
Covello VT, Merkhoher MW. Risk Assessment Methods: Approaches for Assessing Health and Environmental Risks. New York: Springer Science & Business Media; 1993.  Back to cited text no. 11
SaravanaKumar M, SenthilKumar DP. Hazard identification and risk assessment in foundry. IOSR J Mech Civ Eng (IOSR-JMCE) 2014; p. 33-7. Available from: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Hazards-Identification-and-Risk-Assessment-in-Ramji-Saravanakumar/4b845c41f50b78c72d0083a7663fff5a79d82f17.  Back to cited text no. 12
Kifle M, Engdaw D, Alemu K, Sharma HR, Amsalu S, Feleke A, et al. Work related injuries and associated risk factors among iron and steel industries workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Saf Sci 2014;63:211-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
Wirth R, Berthold B, Krämer A, Peter G. Knowledge-based support of system analysis for the analysis of failure modes and effects. Eng Appl Artif Intell 1996;9:219-29.  Back to cited text no. 14
Golshahi J, Sadeghi M, Saqira M, Zavar R, Sadeghifar M, Roohafza H. Exposure to occupational air pollution and cardiac function in workers of the Esfahan steel industry, Iran. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016;23:11759-65.  Back to cited text no. 15
Venugopal V, Krishnamoorthy M, Venkatesan V, Jaganathan V, Shanmugam R, Kanagaraj K, et al. Association between occupational heat stress and DNA damage in lymphocytes of workers exposed to hot working environments in a steel industry in Southern India. Temperature (Austin) 2019;6:346-59.  Back to cited text no. 16
Jovanović JM, Aranđelović M, Jovanović M. Multidisciplinar aspects of occupational accidents and injuries. Facta universitatis-series. Working Living Environ Prot 2004;2:325-33.  Back to cited text no. 17
Mojapelo T, Kok L. Adherence to occupational health and safety standards: The case of a South African steel processing company. Afr J Gov Dev 2017;6:51-71.  Back to cited text no. 18
USA Department of Defense. Procedure for performing a failure mode, effects and criticaly analysis. In: Department of Defense, editor. Military Standard. Washington, DC: USA Department of Defense; 1980.  Back to cited text no. 19
Process Safety Management. In: Administration OSaH, editor. Labor USDo. Washington, D.C.: OSHA; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 20
Narayanagounder S, Gurusami K. A new approach for prioritization of failure modes in design FMEA using ANOVA. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 2009;49:524-31.  Back to cited text no. 21
Paparella S. Failure mode and effects analysis: A useful tool for risk identification and injury prevention. J Emerg Nurs 2007;33:367-71.  Back to cited text no. 22
Nezamodini Z, Jafari B, Sari H, Jazayeri SA. Hazard identification and risk assessment using hazard analysis method in facilities zone of a steel industry in khuzestan, Iran. J Health Res Community 2020;6:33-42.  Back to cited text no. 23
Krishnamurthy M, Ramalingam P, Perumal K, Kamalakannan LP, Chinnadurai J, Shanmugam R, et al. Occupational heat stress impacts on health and productivity in a steel industry in Southern India. Saf Health Work 2017;8:99-104.  Back to cited text no. 24
Ebrahemzadih M, Halvani G, Shahmoradi B, Giahi O. Assessment and risk management of potential hazards by failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) method in Yazd Steel complex. Open J Saf Sci Technol 2014;4:127-34.  Back to cited text no. 25
Taylor NA. Challenges to temperature regulation when working in hot environments. Ind Health 2006;44:331-44.  Back to cited text no. 26
Cherry N, Meyer JD, Adisesh A, Brooke R, Owen-Smith V, Swales C, et al. Surveillance of occupational skin disease: EPIDERM and OPRA. Br J Dermatol 2000;142:1128-34.  Back to cited text no. 27
Chohan JS, Bilga PS. Occupational health hazards in small scale steel manufacturing industries: A case study. Int J Manuf Technol Manage 2011;24:182-92.  Back to cited text no. 28
Pan C, Jiangping Z. Comprehensive evaluation on occupational hazards for steel rolling workshops with the interactive effects of multiple hazards. Procedia Eng 2012;43:143-9.  Back to cited text no. 29
Vivek S, Karthikeyan N, Balan A. Risk assessment and control measures for cold rolling mill in steel industry. Int J Mech Eng Res 2015;5:63-71.  Back to cited text no. 30
Calhoun J, Savoie C, Randolph-Gips M, Bozkurt I. Human reliability analysis in spaceflight applications, part 2: Modified CREAM for spaceflight. Qual Reliab Eng Int 2014;30:3-12.  Back to cited text no. 31
Burchart-Korol D. Life cycle assessment of steel production in Poland: A case study. J Clean Prod 2013;54:235-43.  Back to cited text no. 32
Verma A, Khan SD, Maiti J, Krishna O. Identifying patterns of safety related incidents in a steel plant using association rule mining of incident investigation reports. Saf Sci 2014;70:89-98.  Back to cited text no. 33
Pan C, Zhao J, Comprehensive evaluation on occupational hazards for steel rolling workshops with the interactive effects of multiple hazards: Procedia Eng 2012;43:143-9.  Back to cited text no. 34