Comparison of Risk Factors for Pedestrian Fatality in Urban and Suburban Traffic Accidents

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Instructor, Msc of Epidemiology, Torbat Jam Faculty of Medical Sciences, Torbat Jam, Iran

2 Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran,

3 Department of Social Medicine, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran

4 Legal Medicine Research Center, Legal Medicine Organization, Iran

5 Department of Epidemiology, Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Center, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Background: The burden of traffic accidents on pedestrians is very high in Iran. Since the pattern of injury is different in urban and suburban
accidents, this study was conducted to identify the risk factors associated with pedestrian mortality in urban and suburban traffic accidents in
Tehran and Alborz Provinces. Materials and Methods: The data of all traffic accidents related to pedestrians in Tehran and Alborz Provinces
were investigated from two databases of traffic police and forensic medicine. The effects of demographic variables (age and gender) and
pedestrian position, time, accident location, and vehicle type on the outcome of pedestrian death were investigated. Multiple logistic regression
was used to analyze the data. The significance level was considered Results: From a total of 10742 pedestrians, 6804 males (63.3%) and 3938 females (36.7%) were studied in traffic accidents. In urban accidents,
the effects of pedestrian age such as 35–64 years and >65 years compared to 15–24 years (odds ratio [OR]: 2.04, confidence interval [CI]:
1.26–3.3), (OR: 4.8, CI: 2.9–7.9), male gender (OR: 2.26, CI: 1.6–3.1), lighting condition at night compared to day (OR: 1.6, CI: 1.2–2.1),
two‑way not divided road versus one‑way road (OR: 1.6, CI: 1.12–2.3), the status of day after holidays compared to normal days (OR: 1.53,
CI: 1.09–2.14), type of vehicle such as heavy or semi‑heavy and conventional or pickup versus motorcycles or bicycles (OR: 5.4, CI: 3.1–8.9)
and (OR: 1.8, CI: 1.2–2.7) and pedestrian position at crossing the road from an unauthorized route compared to crossing the road from the
authorized route (OR: 1.94, CI: 1.4–2.6) were significant on the fatality. Whereas in suburban accidents, there was a statistically significant
correlation with pedestrian fatality only in two‑way divided road compared to one‑way (OR: 0.2, CI: 0.05–0.77). Conclusion: The present
study showed that risk factors for pedestrian mortality are different in urban and suburban traffic accidents. It is necessary to take appropriate
measures in urban and suburban areas to reduce the severity of injuries in pedestrians.

Keywords


1. Ameri M, Karimnia A. Epidemiologic study of traffic accidents pedestrians in Iran. Rahvar 2013;22:31‑49.

2. Maracy M, Isfahani M. The burden of road traffic injuries in Isfahan, Iran in 2010. J Kerman Univ Med Sci 2013;20:505‑19.

3. Gorgin L, Salari lak S, Khorasani D, Ahmadi N. Demographic characteristics of pedestrians died from traffic accidents in Kurdistan province during 2004‑2009. Int J Food Microbiol 2011;17:183‑8.

4. Soori H, Hussain S, Razzak J. Road safety in the Eastern Mediterranean Region–findings from the global road safety status report. East Mediterr Health J 2011;17:770‑6.

5. Shadmani FK, Soori H, Ainy E, Zayeri F, Mehmandar MR. Comparison of road traffic death occurrence within urban and metropolitan roads focusing on environmental factors. Hakim Res J 2013;15:339‑45.

6. Hasani J, Nazari SS, Gadirzadeh M, Shojaei A. An epidemiological study of fatal road traffic accidents in Semnan province (Iran) in 2011. Koomesh 2016;17:304‑11.

7. Gorgin L, Salarilak S, Khorasani D, Ahmadi N. Demographic characteristics of Kurdistan province pedestrians died from traffic injuries 88‑83 years. J Leg Med 2011;3:183‑8.

8. Zhang G, Yau KK, Zhang X. Analyzing fault and severity in pedestrian‑motor vehicle accidents in China. Accid Anal Prev 2014;73:141‑50. 9. Luoma J, Peltola H. Does facing traffic improve pedestrian safety? Accid Anal Prev 2013;50:1207‑10.

10. Khorshidi A, Ainy E, Hashemi Nazari SS, Soori H. Temporal patterns of road traffic injuries in Iran. Arch Trauma Res 2016;5:e27894.

11. Daneshpour SA, Mahmoudi M, Abbasi B. Evaluation of Pedestrian Level of Service for Tehran Crosswalks; Case Study of Nabovat Square in East of Tehran. Tehran, Iran: InCIEC, Springer; 2014. p. 377‑87.

12. Iranian Legal Medical Organization. Available from: http://www. lmo.ir/index.aspx?fkeyid=&siteid=&pageid=2370. [Last accessed on 2017 Dec 12].

13. Ballesteros MF, Dischinger PC, Langenberg P. Pedestrian injuries and vehicle type in Maryland, 1995‑1999. Accid Anal Prev 2004;36:73‑81.

14. Moudon AV, Lin L, Jiao J, Hurvitz P, Reeves P. The risk of pedestrian injury and fatality in collisions with motor vehicles, a social ecological study of state routes and city streets in king county, Washington. Accid Anal Prev 2011;43:11‑24.

15. Zadvalikhajeh S, Zadvali F. Survey of effective factors in pedestrian accidents in the city of Orumiyeh. Rahvar 2013;27:27-50.

16. Al‑Madani H, Al‑Janahi A. Personal exposure risk factors in pedestrian accidents in Bahrain. Saf Sci 2006;44:335‑47.

17. Sze NN, Wong SC. Diagnostic analysis of the logistic model for pedestrian injury severity in traffic crashes. Accid Anal Prev 2007;39:1267‑78.

18. Hasani J, Nazari SS, Khorshidi A, Shojaei A. Factors related to pedestrians mortality following road traffic accidents in Tehran and Alborz Provinces, Iran. Int J Epidemiol Res 2016;3:204‑13.

19. Marzaleh MA, Naseri M, Naseri K. Evaluation of factors affecting pedestrians’ safety margin on the streets without traffic. J Saf Promot Inj Prev 2015;3:127‑34.

20. Bakhtiyari M, Soori H, Ainy E, Salehi M, Mehmandar MR. The survey of the role of humans’ risk factors in the severity of road traffic injuries on urban and rural roads. Safety Promot Inj Prev 2014;2:1‑8.

21. Kiya SE, Soori H. Study of epidemiological pattern of pedestrian’s road traffic injuries in 2014 and determination of related risk factors on severity of injury. Payesh 2017;16:293‑302.

22. Räsänen M, Lajunen T, Alticafarbay F, Aydin C. Pedestrian self‑reports of factors influencing the use of pedestrian bridges. Accid Anal Prev 2007;39:969‑73.

23. Vorko‑Jović A, Kern J, Biloglav Z. Risk factors in urban road traffic accidents. J Saf Res 2006;37:93‑8.

24. Desapriya E, Subzwari S, Sasges D, Basic A, Alidina A, Turcotte K, et al. Do light truck vehicles (LTV) impose greater risk of pedestrian injury than passenger cars? A meta‑analysis and systematic review. Traffic Inj Prev 2010;11:48‑56.

25. Sadeghian F, Khosravi A, Emamian MH, Younesian R. The pattern of road traffic injuries and related factors in Shahrood, Iran. Payesh Health Monitor 2008;7:225‑33.

26. Mabunda MM, Swart LA, Seedat M. Magnitude and categories of pedestrian fatalities in South Africa. Accid Anal Prev 2008;40:586‑93.

27. Roudsari BS, Mock CN, Kaufman R, Grossman D, Henary BY, Crandall J, et al. Pedestrian crashes: Higher injury severity and mortality rate for light truck vehicles compared with passenger vehicles. Inj Prev 2004;10:154‑8.

28. Moradi S, Khademi A, Taleghani N. Epidemiologic Study of pedestrians death in driving accidents in Iran. Iran J Forens Med 2003;30:57‑81.

29. Moradi A, Soori H, Kavousi A, Eshghabadi F, Zainni S. The spatial distribution of high and low risk points leading to pedestrians‑related injury in the central area of Tehran. Payesh 2017;16:27‑37.