1. Ghajar J. Traumatic brain injury. Lancet 2000;356:923‑9.
2. Langlois JA, Sattin RW. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: Research and programs of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). J Head Trauma Rehabil 2005;20:187‑8.
3. McGarry LJ, Thompson D, Millham FH, Cowell L, Snyder PJ, Lenderking WR, et al. Outcomes and costs of acute treatment of traumatic brain injury. J Trauma 2002;53:1152‑9.
4. Alderson P, Roberts I. Corticosteroids for acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;1:CD000196.
5. Lyons MW, Blackshaw WJ. Does magnesium sulfate have a role in the management of severe traumatic brain injury in civilian and military populations? A systematic review and meta‑analysis. J R Army Med Corps 2018;164:442‑9.
6. Saatman KE, DuhaimeAC, Bullock R, MaasAI, ValadkaA, Manley GT, et al. Classification of traumatic brain injury for targeted therapies. J Neurotrauma 2008;25:719‑38.
7. Adams JH, Graham DI, Gennarelli TA. Head injury in man and experimental animals: Neuropathology. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 1983;32:15‑30.
8. VanLandingham JW, Cekic M, Cutler S, Hoffman SW, Stein DG. Neurosteroids reduce inflammation after TBI through CD55 induction. Neurosci Lett 2007;425:94‑8.
9. He J, Hoffman SW, Stein DG. Allopregnanolone, a progesterone metabolite, enhances behavioral recovery and decreases neuronal loss after traumatic brain injury. Restor Neurol Neurosci 2004;22:19‑31.
10. Cutler SM, Cekic M, Miller DM, Wali B, VanLandingham JW, Stein DG. Progesterone improves acute recovery after traumatic brain injury in the aged rat. J Neurotrauma 2007;24:1475‑86.
11. Djebaili M, Guo Q, PettusEH, Hoffman SW, Stein DG. The neurosteroids progesterone and allopregnanolone reduce cell death, gliosis, and functional deficits after traumatic brain injury in rats. J Neurotrauma 2005;22:106‑18.
12. Roof RL, Hoffman SW, Stein DG. Progesterone protects against lipid peroxidation following traumatic brain injury in rats. Mol Chem Neuropathol 1997;31:1‑11.
13. Roof RL, Duvdevani R, Stein DG. Progesterone treatment attenuates brain edema following contusion injury in male and female rats. Restor Neurol Neurosci 1992;4:425‑7.
14. Roof RL, Duvdevani R, Stein DG. Gender influences outcome of brain injury: Progesterone plays a protective role. Brain Res 1993;607:333‑6.
15. Roof RL, Duvdevani R, Braswell L, Stein DG. Progesterone facilitates cognitive recovery and reduces secondary neuronal loss caused by cortical contusion injury in male rats. Exp Neurol 1994;129:64‑9.
16. Roof RL, Hall ED. Gender differences in acute CNS trauma and stroke: Neuroprotective effects of estrogen and progesterone. J Neurotrauma 2000;17:367‑88.
17. Roof RL, Zhang Q, Glasier MM, Stein DG. Gender‑specific impairment on Morris water maze task after entorhinal cortex lesion. Behav Brain Res 1993;57:47‑51.
18. Shear DA, Galani R, Hoffman SW, Stein DG. Progesterone protects against necrotic damage and behavioral abnormalities caused by traumatic brain injury. Exp Neurol 2002;178:59‑67.
19. Ransohoff RM, Tani M. Do chemokines mediate leukocyte recruitment in post‑traumatic CNS inf lammation? Trends Neurosci 1998;21:154‑9.
20. Chen J, Chopp M, Li Y. Neuroprotective effects of progesterone after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat. J Neurol Sci 1999;171:24‑30.
21. Asbury ET, Fritts ME, Horton JE, Isaac WL. Progesterone facilitates the acquisition of avoidance learning and protects against subcortical neuronal death following prefrontal cortex ablation in the rat. Behav
Brain Res 1998;97:99‑106.
22. Pettus EH, Wright DW, Stein DG, Hoffman SW. Progesterone treatment inhibits the inflammatory agents that accompany traumatic brain injury. Brain Res 2005;1049:112‑9.
23. Jiang N, Chopp M, Stein D, Feit H. Progesterone is neuroprotective after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in male rats. Brain Res 1996;735:101‑7.
24. Wright DW, Kellermann AL, Hertzberg VS, Clark PL, Frankel M, Goldstein FC, et al. ProTECT: Arandomized clinical trial of progesterone for acute traumatic brain injury. Ann Emerg Med 2007;49:391‑402, 402.e1‑2.
25. Xiao GM, Wei J, Wu ZH, Wang WM, Jiang QZ, Cheng J, et al. Clinical study on the therapeutic effects and mechanism of progesterone in the treatment for acute severe head injury. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi 2007;45:106‑8.
26. Xiao G, Wei J, Yan W, Wang W, Lu Z. Improved outcomes from the administration of progesterone for patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury: A randomized controlled trial. Crit Care 2008;12:R61.
27. Aminmansour B, Nikbakht H, Ghorbani A, Rezvani M, Rahmani P, Torkashvand M, et al. Comparison of the administration of progesterone versus progesterone and vitamin D in improvement of outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury: A randomized clinical trial with placebo group. Adv Biomed Res 2012;1:58.
28. Shakeri M, Boustani MR, Pak N, Panahi F, Salehpour F, Lotfinia I, et al. Effect of progesterone administration on prognosis of patients with diffuse axonal injury due to severe head trauma. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2013;115:2019‑22.
29. Wright DW, Yeatts SD, Silbergleit R, Palesch YY, Hertzberg VS, Frankel M, et al. Very early administration of progesterone for acute traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med 2014;371:2457‑66.
30. Skolnick BE, Maas AI, Narayan RK, van der Hoop RG, MacAllister T, Ward JD, et al. A clinical trial of progesterone for severe traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med 2014;371:2467‑76.
31. Soltani Z, Shahrokhi N, Karamouzian S, Khaksari M, Mofid B, Nakhaee N, et al. Does progesterone improve outcome in diffuse axonal injury? Brain Inj 2017;31:16‑23.
32. Sinha S, Raheja A, Samson N, Goyal K, Bhoi S, Selvi A, et al. A randomized placebo‑controlled trial of progesterone with or without hypothermia in patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury. Neurol India 2017;65:1304‑11.
33. Mofid B, Soltani Z, Khaksari M, Shahrokhi N, Nakhaee N, Karamouzian S, et al. What are the progesterone‑induced changes of the outcome and the serum markers of injury, oxidant activity and inflammation in diffuse axonal injury patients? Int Immunopharmacol 2016;32:103‑10.
34. Aboukhabar H, Abouelela A, Shaban S. Impact of progesterone administration on outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Research and Opinion in Anesthesia and Intensive Care 2017;4:84‑9.
35. Langlois JA, Rutland‑Brown W, Thomas KE. Traumatic brain injury in the United States; Emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Atlanta 2004.
36. Rosenfeld JV, MaasAI, Bragge P, Morganti‑Kossmann MC, Manley GT, Gruen RL. Early management of severe traumatic brain injury. Lancet 2012;380:1088‑98.
37. Stein DG, Wright DW. Progesterone in the clinical treatment of acute traumatic brain injury. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2010;19:847‑57.
38. Gibson CL, Gray LJ, Bath PM, Murphy SP. Progesterone for the treatment of experimental brain injury; a systematic review. Brain 2008;131:318‑28.
39. Zeng Y, Zhang Y, Ma J, Xu J. Progesterone for acute traumatic brain injury: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One 2015;10:e0140624.
40. Lu XY, Sun H, Li QY, Lu PS. Progesterone for traumatic brain injury: A meta‑analysis review of randomized controlled trials. World Neurosurg 2016;90:199‑210.